PATAO - LOS ANGELES

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PUBLICATIONS


RUNX1 PREVENTS OESTROGEN-MEDIATED AXIN1 SUPPRESSION AND B-CATENIN ACTIVATION IN ER-POSITIVE BREAST CANCER (2016).
CHIMGE NO, LITTLE G, BANIWAL S, ADISETIYO H, XIE Y, ZHANG T, O'LAUGHLIN A, LIU ZY, ULRICH P, MARTIN A, MHAWECH-FAUCEGLIA P, ELLIS MJ, TRIPATHY D, GROSHEN S, LIANG C, LI Z, SCHONES DE, FRENKEL B. NATURE COMMUNICATIONS. [PMID: 26916619]



ESTROGENS ANTAGONIZE RUNX2-MEDIATED OSTEOBLAST-DRIVEN OSTEOCLASTOGENESIS THROUGH REGULATING RANKL MEMBRANE ASSOCIATION (2015).
MARTIN A, XIONG J, KOROMILA T, CHANG S, SONG YS, KRUM SA, GABET Y, FRENKEL B. JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH [PMID: 25701138]

In addition to its thoroughly investigated role in bone formation, the osteoblast master transcription factor RUNX2 also promotes osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Here we demonstrate that 17β-estradiol (E2), which is known to attenuate bone turnover in vivo and RUNX2 activity in vitro, strongly inhibits RUNX2-mediated osteoblast-driven osteoclastogenesis in co-cultures. Towards deciphering the underlying mechanism, we induced premature expression of RUNX2 in primary murine pre-osteoblasts, which resulted in robust differentiation of co-cultured splenocytes into mature osteoclasts. This was attributable to RUNX2-mediated increase in RANKL secretion, determined by ELISA, as well as to RUNX2-mediated increase in RANKL association with the osteoblast membrane, demonstrated using confocal fluorescence microscopy. The increased association with the osteoblast membrane was recapitulated by transiently expressed GFP-RANKL. E2 abolished the RUNX2-mediated increase in membrane-associated RANKL and GFP-RANKL, as well as the concomitant osteoclastogenesis. RUNX2-mediated RANKL cellular redistribution was attributable in part to a decrease in Opg expression, but E2 did not influence Opg expression either in the presence or absence of RUNX2. Diminution of RUNX2-mediated osteoclastogenesis by E2 occurred regardless of whether the pre-osteoclasts were derived from wild type or estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-knockout mice, suggesting that activated ERα inhibited osteoblast-driven osteoclastogenesis by acting in osteoblasts, possibly targeting RUNX2. Furthermore, the selective ER modulators (SERMs) tamoxifen and raloxifene mimicked E2 in abrogating the stimulatory effect of osteoblastic RUNX2 on osteoclast differentiation in the co-culture assay. Thus, E2 antagonizes RUNX2-mediated RANKL trafficking and subsequent osteoclastogenesis. Targeting RUNX2 and/or downstream mechanisms that regulate RANKL trafficking may lead to the development of improved SERMs and possibly non-hormonal therapeutic approaches to high turnover bone disease.



GLUCOCORTICOIDS ANTAGONIZE RUNX2 DURING OSTEOBLAST DIFFERENTIATION IN CULTURES OF ST2 PLURIPOTENT MESENCHYMAL CELLS (2013).
KOROMILA T, BANIWAL SK, SONG YS, MARTIN A, XIONG J, FRENKEL B. JOURNAL OF CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY, 115(1):27-33 [PMID: 23943595]

The efficacy of glucocorticoids (GCs) in treating a wide range of autoimmune and inflammatory conditions is blemished by severe side effects, including osteoporosis. The chief mechanism leading to GC-induced osteoporosis is inhibition of bone formation, but the role of RUNX2, a master regulator of osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, has not been well studied. We assessed effects of the synthetic GC dexamethasone (dex) on transcription of RUNX2-stimulated genes during the differentiation of mesenchymal pluripotent cells into osteoblasts. Dex inhibited a RUNX2 reporter gene and attenuated locus-dependently RUNX2-driven expression of several endogenous target genes. The anti-RUNX2 activity of dex was not attributable to decreased RUNX2 expression, but rather to physical interaction between RUNX2 and the GC receptor (GR), demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation assays and co-immunofluorescence imaging. Investigation of the RUNX2/GR interaction may lead to the development of bone-sparing GC treatment modalities for the management of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.



ALTERATIONS IN BRCA1 EXPRESSION IN MOUSE OVARIAN GRANULOSA CELLS HAVE SHORT-TERM AND LONG-TERM CONSEQUENCES ON ESTROGEN-RESPONSIVE ORGANS (2012).
YEN HY, GABET Y, LIU Y, MARTIN A, WU NL, PIKE MC, FRENKEL B, MAXSON R, DUBEAU L. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, 92(6):802-811 [PMID: 22488153]

Incessant menstrual cycle activity, uninterrupted by either pregnancy or oral contraceptive use, is the most important risk factor for sporadic ovarian cancer. Menstrual cycle progression is partly controlled by steroid hormones such as estrogens and others that are secreted by the ovarian granulosa cells. We showed earlier that mice carrying a homozygous granulosa cell-specific knockout of Brca1, the homolog of BRCA1 that is associated with familial ovarian cancer predisposition in humans, develop benign epithelial tumors in their reproductive tract. These tumors are driven, at least in part, by a prolongation of the proestrus phase of the estrus cycle (equivalent to the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle) in Brca1 mutant mice, resulting in prolonged unopposed estrogen stimulation. Mutant mice synchronized in proestrus also showed increased circulating estradiol levels, but the possibility that this change also has a role in tumor predisposition was not investigated. We sought to determine whether these changes in hormonal stimulation result in measurable changes in tissues targeted by estrogen outside the ovary. Here we show that mice carrying a Brca1 mutation in their ovarian granulosa cells show increased endometrial proliferation during proestrus, implying that the effects of Brca1 inactivation on estrogen stimulation have short-term consequences, at least on this target organ. We further show that mutant mice develop increased femoral trabecular thickness and femoral length, which are well-known consequences of chronic estrogen stimulation. Estrogen biosynthesis by granulosa cells was increased not only in mice carrying a homozygous Brca1 mutation, but also in heterozygous mutants mimicking the mutational status in granulosa cells of human BRCA1 mutation carriers. The results suggest that human germline BRCA1 mutations, although associated with increased cancer risk, may also have beneficial consequences, such as increased bone strength, that may have contributed to the maintenance of mutated BRCA1 alleles in the human gene pool.